Economical Structure of Islamic Society
Economical structure has been indexed to the West, since classical works written about economical structure of islamic society are not known today. Therefore, the author explain how an islamic society must be, by starting economical structure in Medina, and comparing it to liberalism and communism.
Since we cannot bring classical works written in the golden period about economical structure of islamic society to literature today; economics islamic countries talked about, cannot goes beyond being repetition of western economical theories directly, and examining and commenting economical events with western economical postulates. This mothod has taken, at the beginning, social life as “the other” and ignored the bonds between its vision and economical life and caused and been still causing concept and reality break, by applying concepts emerged from experience of west.
Whereas, economical perspective brought by Islam, has come up to now since foundation of islamic state in Medina, and has been applied to islamic society and a distinct economical structure has been born by placing into economical events flow. Although economical structure has been tried to shift to non-islamic systems, and they have been successful in this field today to a certain limit; economical life in islamic countries has not been got out of effect of İslam totaly. That is to say, when we examine history of islamic economy, if we took only history of economical thought, in that case, we would be away from the truths and we would commit a crime on behalf of islam cruely.
There has been an inner-structure of İslam, in islamic society suitable for itself. By catching main lines of this, the originality of economical structure of islamic society has been accepted.
Some authors and thinkers who have taken this economical structure and concepts as a fundamental, have seen and shown the structure of islamic economy, as if liberal or socialist structure according to their tendencies of economical doctrines and decisions on İslam. All of those people who have written on İslam, have not looked at İslam directly, but they have looked in view of western doctrines on which they have agreed and tried to evaluate it. Whereas, İslam is a reality, but we cannot reach its fact, unless we take it separately from western civilization.
The situation is the same for socialist and comunist writings. Islamic economists and thinkers can only put forward system of islamic economy. It is possible that civilizations can be examined from outside.
Like every aspect of it; first principle in searching islamic economy is to accept that it is different from non-muslim systems. Second principle is that this aspect cannot be held independently and separately from other aspects which are belief, worship, moral, law, social life, and general view of world.
Third principle which have to be paid attention to is not to say that there would not be a system of islamic economy by looking at systems and positions of islamic countries; on the other hand, there would not be any useful effecfs of a system today derived from islamic principles.
There is not any research in the decreasing role of religious prohibition on usury, and yearly sum of alms given to the poor. Economists who examine economical effects of İslam must set up their theories by taking into account these factors.
After detemining these initial principles, economical view of İslam and inseparately from this, economical structure of islamic societieş will be explained by main lines, in next sections.
Islam regulates life ,we live, according to eternity. Economy cannot exceed frame of this life directly. However, human, who is the candidate for eternity, can interfere eternity problem which is important in his/her work, comment and use of world, indirectly. In islamic economy concept, neither theory of Marxist infrastructure, nor models of liberalist homoeconomicus is available. Economy does not comprise infrastructure of social events, and there cannot be only one homoeconomicus in human.
In religions, there have been a fixed table of life styles determined for human or society; for human and society; and for one aspect of human and society. Doctrines of philosophers go beyond creation on a large scale, no matter how they were born by observing human. Liberalism has passed this process. Capitalism has experienced. Socialism and communism will experience inevitably. In fact, socialism and liberalism are not strict application doctrines. They are piles of principles determining different directions. Socialism and liberalism are neither an economical structure chart, nor an economical system, even nor an economical doctrine. Communism and capitalism are economical systems practiced, economical structures tried to be held in place.
Both of these structures have fused, corroded and used up humans and societies in spite of liberal and socialist principles which they have claimed. Islam has not suggested a structure which is frozen, rigid, applied for a short period and then, to fight to remove it, and swallow, suck, decharge and dry energy of human and society. It has not contended to say some principles which is deceptive and staying on air like liberalism and socialism, either.
Demolishing islamic ecnomy and coming poverty never happened by inside factors and because of system, but always by external attacks. Failure of western type economies applied recently is not because of İslam, but because of leaving İslam and way of living it. Capitalism, basicly pays attention to economical development and goods, but not human. It tends to technology, and mass production. All the power and desire of capitalism accumulate on the frame of “production”, as a result. Production is in direction of collective increase. However, this production order would collapse by lack of money and customers.
Production has increased the volume of consumption, and consumption has increased that of production. These two increases have been tied to each other with needful bounds, chasing these increases one to another has stuck economy into vicious increase circle.
Initially, communism has arisen from the problem of consumption. It has arisen as a reaction to “lack of consumption” because of “unfair distribution” caused by capitalsim. The biggest drama of communist society is not to have another concept and standart of consumption diferent from capitalist society. Such a regime in which there is a coldness between order of production and pattern of consumption will disappear inevitably. These two opposite economical orders, capitalism and communism, try to destroy each other from outside, increase their crisis and prepare world psychology as against each other besides their internal crisis and disorders of structure.
Historical experience has shown that capitalism because of consumption and communism because of production could not establish peaceful societies, in contrary to their targets and perspectives at original points. In islamic society, production and consumption sectors are neither functions of each other; as in capitalism, nor separated from each other with certain lines; as in communism.
Defining private property, enterprise and limited competition perevents indivudial life from being mixed by demolishing pressure of state; factor of profit reflects economical eagerness; on the other hand, prohibition of interest limits profit without effort; alms, as a social regulator itself prevents abysses between borders occoured in capitalism; prohibition of waste decreases consumption; intelligence of jihat, and concept of charity encourage production on behalf of humanity.
Economical order does not become unruly force affecting all other fields on a large scale. Islam changes vivid life from chaos into cosmos, as other systems try to put a dead thought patterns onto vivid life.
According to capitalism, property belongs to a single man absolutely. After owning a property, everybody wants to send away, even, another’s shadow from it. This is not different from the view of “others are hell”. Here is main philosophy of capitalism “I’m paradise, but others are hell” Here is defeating the powerful to the weak; Here is providing field to arise proleteria; and here is main philosophy of exploiture , extended to imperialism.
In communism, hell is man himself. There is no trust in society, even in a single man, either. No property is for him. With the tongue of communism, as it rejects property in language, it exalts it in heart so greatly that nobody can own it.
Concepts of human, goods and property of İslam are totaly different from these two doctrines. Islam never forgets Allah (May His Glory be Exalted!) who is the creator of both human and things. Everything belongs to him, absolutely. There are no other possessors of things, but Allah (M.H.G.E.) A muslim always remembers and has to remember Allah (M.H.G.E.) who is the real possessor of existences; when either owning or spending.
Largest field is the right of Allah (M.H.G.E.). Absolute right is his (M.H.G.E.), only. Later, right of human, of animals, of plants, and of things come orderly. When looking at this view, in İslam, there is a right of a stone, as well that neither human nor society can take its right from it.
That is to say, in İslam, there is not either not to accept a single person the owner of property, that is mistrust –in contrary to communism-, nor to accept a person as a absolute owner of thing which takes his mind off Allah (M.H.G.E.)-in contrary to capitalism. Islam accepts owhership of property for a man, but above this right, right of Allah (M.H.G.E.) cömes first. Ownership of property has been accepted with ways of usage, purpose and limits.
Islam has accepted the ownership of a person, after sealing religious otherwordly impression on it. The highest honour for a man is to be tied to right and authority of becoming caliph of Allah (M.H.G.E.) in this world. That is to say, İslam is the world view which has trusted in, and relied on human. Man has been accepted as powerful as he can operate the world’s going on as a caliph of Allah (M.H.G.E.), in Islam.
Islamic order is such an order that it indoctrinates such a soul and discipline with its world view, moral, virtue, social solidarity, evaluation, measures of penalization, freedom and balance of being under control to indivudials that everybody never forget that Allah’s (M.H.G.E.) hand is always over him/her, even over in his/her minor behaviour, thought, senses.
One of the results of acceptance that human is superior to other existence, caliph of Allah (M.H.G.E.), an honoured unit himself/herself is to give him/her right of indivudial enterprise. There is no indivudial-state struggle in islam, unlike capitalist order. In İslam, purposes of indivudials and state are the same. The purpose is to perform islam. Soul of religion and virtue which has been digested by state and person is the only factor to provide this harmony. Earning is based on work, in islam. Capital is illegal unless it combines with effort. It is forbidden that money earns money. In this way, main source of capitalism has been dried. If capital is put under provision of labor, the right given to capital will become the right given to labor.
One of the fundamental principles of economical structures specific to Islam has been put forth with clear command of “Allah (M.H.G.E.) has ordered that commerce is legal, but interest is forbidden”. In capitalism, commerce and interest are both legal. However, in socialism, commerce and interest are both forbidden. Islam prevents market which occours freely with principles has brought such as religious soul, belief in afterlife, consciousness of giving an account , prohibition of interest, foundation of alms, interference of state in measuring, to change into a capitalist market. On the other hand, the same principles organize consumption field without separating from production field.
During Hazrat Prophet (Peace be upon him) islamic economy was in the position of still being established. Economical castes were being cracked; interest was being banned; the poor were being elevated to productivity class, with the holy command; a compulsory fortune flow was being provided by jihat from exploiting big cities to poor areas, by this way a new economical structure was being founded in a big and important region of Asia. Since Hazrat Prophet (P.B.U.H.) held majority of his companions ready for jihat in this term, their income was a very slow profit.
Islam is brand new and disparate in meaning, purpose, and internal structure. Real newness is this. Wealth of İslamic society, in period of Hazrat Ömer (May Allah be well pleased with him), has reached at such a legendary volume that every new-born child was paid a salary. The events in period of Hazrat Osman (M.A.P.H.) could be said that they were caused by excess wealth. In Umayyad period wealth and welfare increased and not decreased because of conquests coming one after another, in spite of big disasters in religious and political fields. In Abbasıd period, islamic world would be filled and overflowed with wealth and welfare, in peace and calm.
Ottoman period has made its economically bright presence felt for centuries, because of income from conquests, initially and organising land according to military service.
In the end, we have set in the position of bankruptcy in religion, civilization, culture, politics, moral, and economy which we experience today. Although we have fallen such a position, islamic countries have been able to stay away from communist revolutions, seen in non-muslim countries which are economically similar.
The truth of “The worship of economy brings nothing, but extreme poverty “ has been understood better day by day in islamic countries. It has become visible that capitalist foundations, interest, and lack of alms beat down society totally. The heroic rising generation who will rescue islamic societies from hands and tongues of westerns and communists, will also have to rearrange and establish economy of islamic society undoubtedly.