Islam has brought some terms and definitions in belief, practice, moral; and has also made classifications in religion, science, economy and administration which direct human behaviours. Allah (May His Glory be Exalted!) has set the order in the universe as he has created all living and non-living things. He has created everything in pairs; humans and the universe; and also created living and non-livings in the universe; soul and body in humans; existence and effect in non-livings; aim and will in livings; veracity and goodness in soul; use and familiarity in body, time in place;, and has made energy effective in matter; has made the life a purpose in plants; and has given will to conscience in society; expression of truth by tongue; spreading goodness and beauties by art in religion; setting familiarity by law in administration; making usefulness by tecnics in economy. As physiographts said, the duty of man, to try to discover order founded in the universe.
As we mentioned above, there has a law side of Islam. Fort his reason, the people who accept the existence of islamic law, must accept the existence of islamic economy, as well. Law and economy are similiar sciences because , they take the subject of human and human behaviours. So, we say that people who accept the law side of İslam, have to accept economical side of İslam, too. Not only muslims but also non-muslims accept the existence of islamic law. It can be said that Interntional Law Conference organized in Lahey ,in 1938; muslims and non-muslim members decided unanimously on “İslamic law is one of the sources of comperative law, vivid and suitable for improvement, independent and original and is not taken from another law”.
Many of words and terms have been produced by economy since the time which was apart from philosophy are found in verses of the Quran either in meaning or in saying. For example; there are a lot of verses on subjects like; work(2), wage(3), İcare (contract of service and rent) , interest (Riba)(4), Shopping(bey’)(5) property(6), Money(7), kard (credit)(8), capital(9), need(10), benefit (11), loss(12), earning(get profit)(13), not decreasing values of property (goods and Money)(14) Alms(Tax), and distribution places of alms(15), commerce(16), agriculture(17), Cheating(18), usurpation and theft(19). In these verses, there have been brought many judgements by either clear rules and regulations of economical meanings, or implicitness. Therefore, general principles of the system have been fixed on the subjects of production, consumption, Exchange and others which constitute base of economy. To understand these verses, it is necessary to know language of the Quran scholarly, that is to know classical Arabic.
There could be some people who defend that The Quran and Islam have not introduced an economical model, economical rules are not found in the Quran clearly and so, there is nothing called “islamic economy”. We, here, want to introduce prayer (salat) as an example and an evidence to show the wrongness of this view. As known, prayer is one of the fundamentals of Islam. Everybody accepts this as it is, and nobody can deny it and say that there is no prayer at all. But, there is only one word mentioning about prayer, that is “salat” (prayer and forgiveness of sins). Besides, there are words of “kıyam” (standing up), “kıraat” (reading), “rüku” (bowing down in prayer), “secde” (prostrating oneself in worship). Forms, fundamentals,and properties of “Salat” has not been explained in the Quran clearly. All the fundamentals and characteristics of “salat” have been explained and taught by Hazrat Prophet’s (Peace be upon Him) sunnahs. Companions of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) used to pray like him by watching and imitating. Even , in this subject It is certain that Hazrat Prophet (P.B.U.H.) commanded :”Look at me! Pray in the way how I pray.”(20).
If the sunnah of Hazrat Prophet (P.B.U.H.) which explains the pray did not exist, there would not be form unity of muslims’ pray today. While some were prostrating oneself on their noses and forehead; some would be prostrating on their ears. But sunnah has explained all the details one by one like what rüku is and how it is acted, what secde is and how it is done, and so on.Pray has been called term “salat”, but its meaning is not clear and it could not express pray definetely. Can we say that there has not been pray in the Quran and Islam, by evaluating that pray has not been explained in details in the Quran? No! Because, Islam is a religion based on two fundamentals: The Quran and the sunnah. There would be a thing in the sunnah and in the behaviour of the Prophet(P.B.U.H.) while it is not found in the Quran. Or a judgement and an advice can be explained and made easy to understand by sunnah, while it is expressed unclearly in the Quran. Whereas, when we look through from the point of economy which is our main subject, a very interesting position comes into being. As a very few words have been said about pray which nobody can deny its existence, but hundreds of words in hundreds of verses have been mentioned about economy in the Quran. Texts of verses will be given in place, later on.
Therefore, people who defend on there wss not economy in Islam,because of not finding clear evidences in the Quran, they fall on the wrongness as if there was no pray in Islam by not finding clear judgements about pray in the Quran, as well. Neither muslims nor non-muslims accept that there was no pray because of lack of evidences, in the same way that there was no economy, because of lack of clear judgements.
Muhammed Hamdi Yazır reflected these ideas related to our subject while he was commenting 274th verses of Bakara surah: The best way of distribution is to go on distribution in every aspect by ignoring way of earning, either small amount or big, either at night or day time, either openly or secretly; are probably evaluated according to divine visdom and divine sunnah. On the bases of this, there are vital, financial and economical visdoms to prevent illicit trade, hoarding for profit and to accelerate distrubition of properties by presenting them to be used. Most attention drawing point is to connect indivudial economy with general economy together. It must be known that economical collapsion starts when general structure of society helps black marketers to gain excess profit and prevent rapid distribution of goods.(21).
But, as we said before, Islamic economy has not been put forward with all its institutions and rules theoretically, today. For islamic economy, to be an independent science, it is necessary to work on for along time, even not only theoretically, but also the knowledge obtained must be put into practice. For this reason, we do not find the works which explain islamic economy assertive which are either our own studies, or published in our country as translation and compilations. But, there is one thing we claim that bases of islamic economy has been defined in the Quran and sunnah. Therefore, when we connect the reference points , the skeleton of islamic economy will appear. Today’s İslam scholars will put forward islamic economy theoretically as a doctrine, by referring its sources; as scholars did in the past. In this field, works of scientists have given hopes. to us. For a science, to become an independent by separating from other studies, it is necessary not only theoretical studies but also social and economical conditions, as well. Studying is a process. Our hope is to remove crisis and oppression because of today’s wrong economical systems, and to act a system suitable nature of individuals and society. According to physiographts who are members of physiographts school, one of economical ekols in the world,: there are such a natural order in kingdom of beings on Earth. One of their main principles in ideal system is that most benefical one among regimes avaliable today, on behalf of human, is natural order. Natural order is the order desired by the power created the Earth. The order the God established is better than artificial systems humans can think.(22). The natural order theory of physiographts Feridun Ergin mentioned in his book is an expression of a truth, and man’s duty is to try to reach this natural order. To us, the World can reach this order by “ictihad” (establishing a religious precedent) and
“icma” (general concurrence and agreement) which were shown by İslam, with the leadership of the Quran and sunnah. I wish succes, right now, to people who make effort sincerely and cordially, spend life in this field,
By: Prof. Dr. OSMAN ESKİCİOĞLU